Is Silver Cancerogenic?
The ECHA (European Chemical Agency) and EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) has determined that silver is not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.
Is Silver Harmful to Humans?
Unlike other metals such as lead and mercury, silver is not toxic to humans and is not known to cause cancer, reproductive or neurological damage, or other chronic adverse effects. This is because solid silver is almost completely biologically inert, and even if ingested, would pass through the human body without being absorbed into tissues.
Who is at Risk of Harm from Silver?
People who are most vulnerable to minor health effects from silver (including allergic contact dermatitis, or irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract irritation, or the stomach) are those who work in factories where silver is manufactured.
Is Silver in the Environment a Health Risk?
In its pure metal form or in ores, silver does not dissolve and is not considered an environmental risk. But high doses of certain compounds of silver have been found to highly toxic to aquatic life forms, such as fish. ECHA reports a threshold of 50 µg/Liter silver as toxic to fishes.
Silver concentration in Nanoksia is only 0,054%.
Deleterious Effects of Ag NPs
Due to the effective antimicrobial activity and unique plasmonic properties of Ag NPs, these nanoparticles have been of particular interest for application in various sectors, such as commodity, healthcare, and electronic industries. The continued widespread usage of Ag NPs likely will result in environmental contamination and human exposure, thus raising concerns pertaining to environmental safety and human health.
It has not yet been clinically noted that Ag NP exposure has noticeable deleterious effects.
Exposure-Related Health Effects of Silver and Silver Compounds
The threshold limit values for metallic silver is (0.1 mg/m3) and soluble compounds of silver is (0.01 mg/m3), recommended in 8h time-weighted average (TWA).
The limit for a 100m2 flat would be roughly 3mg of soluble silver, equals to more than 5 lt of Nanoksia.
An individual's daily silver exposure should not exceed 5 micrograms per every kilogram of body weight (0,005 mg/kg bw/d).
The exposure limit for a 70 kg human is 0,35 mg silver per day, equals to more than 650 ml of Nanoksia.
Ag NP vs Ag Ions
In general, silver concentrations are several folds higher exposed to AgOAc in comparison to Ag NP. This may be explained by the 1.8 to 7-fold higher dose of silver from AgOAc (∼64–256 mg silver/kg bw/day) compared with the Ag NP high-dose formulation (36 mg silver/kg bw/day).
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
Although available information on the toxicity of Ag NPs and silver to mammalian reproduction and development is limited, specifically addressing reproductive toxicity of Ag NPs could not be identified.